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Healthy And Productive Paid work for Youth with disabilities (HAPPY)

Healthy And Productive Paid work for Youth with disabilities

HAPPY is the latest project from the TRAIL lab, focused on enhancing inclusive employment for youth with disabilities. Dr. Sally Lindsay, senior scientist at Holland Bloorview Kids Rehabilitation Hospital (Holland Bloorview), is leading the team in developing evidence-informed, gender-responsive solutions on disability disclosure and workplace accommodations.

This five-year project brings together an interdisciplinary team of researchers, employers, clinicians and youth with disabilities to develop, implement and evaluate evidence-informed and gender-responsive solutions to enhance healthy and inclusive labour force participation of youth with disabilities.

Funding for this project is provided by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council (SSHRC) and Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) Partnership Grant. Matched funding is provided by the Kimel Family Opportunities Fund through the Holland Bloorview Kids Rehabilitation Hospital Foundation.

Interested in the HAPPY toolkit? Fill out this form to gain access.

Why focus on disability disclosure and workplace accommodations?

Little is known about the experiences of disability disclosure and workplace accommodations among young people with disabilities who attempt to enter and remain in the workforce. Understanding how disclosure and accommodations are facilitated in the workplace is critical to creating more inclusive and productive workplaces:

  • Self-disclosure of a disability is a prerequisite of receiving accommodations.1,2,3, However, many young people with disabilities are often poorly prepared to disclose their condition and to advocate for accommodations.4, 2
  • Accommodations can extend working life and enhance physical and psychological health and can often be provided at little or no cost 5,6
  • Workplace accommodations are supported by human rights and accessibility legislation 7 and place a duty on employers to provide reasonable accommodations 8
  • Although accommodations have the potential to improve work participation they are under-utilized with less than 1 in 5 people with a disability receiving accommodations.9,10
  • Despite the high prevalence of working-age Canadians with a disability, less than 30% of companies have disability-specific policies and only 18% of companies offer disability training programs.11

Project goals

This project aims to identify effective disclosure strategies and workplace accommodation processes, to improve quality of life and job performance for youth with disabilities.

  • The project team is developing toolkits and simulations for youth, clinicians, and employers to support conversations around disability disclosure and to facilitate accommodation processes.
  • Toolkits are being co-created with participants from each of these groups to ensure that they are reflective of the lived realities of youth with disabilities, and are tailored to the organizational contexts in which employers and clinicians work.
  • Simulations will also be co-created with these groups, and will demonstrate effective ways to have conversations around disability disclosure and workplace accommodations.

In addition, a gender lens will be applied in developing these tools in order to address gender-related barriers and facilitators to inclusive employment.

Project Objectives

  • Develop evidence on disability disclosure and workplace accommodations
  • Implement and evaluate evidence-informed, gender-responsive solutions
  • Build capacity for measuring and demonstrating broader health and socio-economic impacts of these interventions
  • Expand evidence base and research capacity on the integration of sex and gender-based analysis with respect to healthy and productive work
  • Enhance inter-disciplinary partnerships through research alliance

Where are we now?

We are currently in the second phase of our five-year project.

Our team (at the time the funding was awarded)

Project Director
Dr. Sally Lindsay

Dr. Angela Colantonio
Dr. Jennifer Stinson
Dr. Sandra Moll
Dr. Joanne Leck
Dr. Brent Lyons
Dr. Winny Shen

Dr. Nicole Thomson
Dr. Mahadeo Sukhai
Donna Barker
Tina Sarkar-Thomson
Donna Chisholm-Cross
Nadine Sunarich
Gabriella Carafa
Zenee Maceda


2023 / In press 

Fuentes K, Ragunathan S, Lindsay S. (2023) Varieties of ‘new normal’: Experiences and perspectives on employment among youth during the reopening stages of the COVID-19 pandemic. Work: A Journal of Assessment, Prevention and Rehabilitation (in press)

Hanafy S, Colantonio A, Mollayeva T, Munce S, Lindsay S (2023) Employment and accommodation needs and the effect of COVID-19 on men and women with traumatic brain injury. Work, 1-18.

Rezai MLindsay S, Ahmed H, Vijayakumar A. (2023) Workplace inclusion: A scoping review of the qualitative literature. Work, 1-15.

Fuentes KLindsay S. (2023) Workplace accommodations during the pandemic: A scoping review of their impact on people with disabilities. Work, 1-14.

Tomas V, Kingsnorth S, Kirsh B, Anagnostou E, Lindsay S. (2023)Using the COM-B model and theoretical domains framework to understand workplace disclosure, influencers, and needs among autistic youth and young adults. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders (early online)

Lindsay SFuentes KTomas V, Hsu S. (2023) Ableism and workplace discrimination among youth and young adults with disabilities: A systematic review. Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation, 1-17.

Lindsay S, Ahmed A, Tomas V, Vijaykaumar A. (2023) Exploring the lived experiences of ethnic minority youth with disabilities: A qualitative systematic review. Disability & Rehabilitation, 1-14.


Lindsay S, Varahra A. (2022) A systematic review of self-determination interventions for children and youth with disabilities. Disability and Rehabilitation, 44(19): 5341-5362.

Varahra A, Ahmed H, Lindsay S. (2022) Exploring direct and indirect associations of exercise and sport participation with employment among individuals with disabilities: A scoping review.  Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation 32(1): 44-54 

Tomas V, Ahmed H, Lindsay S(2022) Unravelling the complexities of workplace disclosure among persons with non-visible disabilities and illnesses: A qualitative meta-ethnography. Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation 32: 538-563.

Lindsay S, Varahra A, Ahmed H, Abrahamson S, Pulver S,  Primucci M, Wong K. (2022) Exploring the relationships between race and ethnicity on school and work outcomes among youth and young adults with disabilities: A scoping review. Disability & Rehabilitation 44(25): 8110-8129,

Lindsay S, Thiyagarajah K. (2022) A scoping review of the benefits and challenges of using service dogs for finding and maintaining employment. Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation 32(1): 27-43. 

Lindsay SKolne K. (2022) Understanding clinicians’ strategies for providing gender- sensitive care: An exploration among pediatric rehabilitation health care providers. Disability & Rehabilitation, 44(11): 2437-2447.

Lindsay S, Kolne K, Rezai M. (2022) Challenges with providing gender-sensitive care: Exploring experiences within pediatric rehabilitation. Disability & Rehabilitation 44(6): 891-899.


Lindsay S, Ahmed H, Apostolopoulos, D. (2021) Facilitators for coping with the COVID-19 pandemic: Online qualitative interviews comparing youth with and without disabilities. Disability and Health Journal 14(4): 101113.

Lindsay S, Kolne K, Barker D, Colantonio A, Stinson J, Moll S, Thomson N. (2021) Exploration of gender-sensitive care in vocational rehabilitation providers working with youth with disabilities: Co-development of a simulation. Journal of Medical Internet Research: Formative Research 5(3): e23568.

Lindsay S, Osten V, Rezai M, Bui S. (2021) Disclosure and workplace accommodations for people with autism: A systematic review. Disability & Rehabilitation 43(5): 597-610.

Lindsay S, Kosareva P, Sukhai M, Thomson N, Stinson J. (2021) Online self-determination toolkit for youth with disabilities: Protocol for a mixed method evaluation. Journal of Medical Internet Research Protocols 10(1): e20463.

Lindsay S, Osten V, Rezai M, Bui S. (2021) Disclosure and workplace accommodations for people with autism: A systematic review. Disability & Rehabilitation 43(5): 597-610.


Lindsay S, Rezai M, Shen W, Lyons B. (2020) Building a disability disclosure simulation as an educational tool. Equality, Diversity & Inclusion  39(8): 865-879.

Rezai M, Kolne KBui S, Lindsay S. (2020) Measures of workplace inclusion: A systematic review using the COSMIN methodology. Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation 30(3): 420-454.


Lindsay S, Rezai MKolne K, Osten V. (2019) Outcomes of gender-sensitivity educational interventions for healthcare providers: A systematic review. Health Education Journal  78(8): 958-976. 

Lindsay S, Cagliostro E, Leck J, Shen W, Stinson J. (2019) Disability disclosure and workplace accommodations among youth with disabilities. Disability & Rehabilitation 41(16): 1914-1924.

Paniccia A, Colquohoun H, Kirsh B, Lindsay S. (2019) Youth and young adults with acquired brain injury transition towards work-related roles: A qualitative study. Disability & Rehabilitation 41(11): 1331-1342.

Lindsay S, Leck J, Shen W, Cagliostro E, Stinson J. (2019) A framework for developing employer’s disability confidence. Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal 38(1): 40-55. 

Lindsay S, Cagliostro E, Leck J, Shen W, Stinson J. (2019) Employers’ perspectives of including young people with disabilities in the workforce, disability disclosure and providing accommodationsJournal of Vocational Rehabilitation  50(2): 141-156. 

Lindsay S, Cagliostro E, Albarico M, Mortaji N, Srikathan D. (2019) Gender matters in the transition to employment for young adults with physical disabilities. Disability & Rehabilitation 41(3): 319-332.


Lindsay S, Cagliostro E, Albarico, M., Mortaji, N., & Karon, L. (2018) A systematic review of the benefits of hiring people with disabilities.Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation  28(4): 634-655.

Lindsay S, Cagliostro E, Carafa G. (2018) A systematic review of workplace disclosure and accommodation requests for accommodations among youth and young adults with disabilities. Disability & Rehabilitation  40(25): 2971-2986.

Lindsay S, Cagliostro E, Albarico M, Srikathan D, Mortaji N. (2018) A systematic review of the role of gender in finding and maintaining employment among youth and young adults with disabilities. Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation  28(2): 232-251.

Lindsay S, Cagliostro E, Carafa G. (2018) A systematic review of barriers and facilitators of disability disclosure in post-secondary education among youth with disabilities. International Journal of Disability Development & Education  65(5): 526-556.

Webinar Series 

Our inclusive employment webinar series launched in April 2019. Stay tuned for more upcoming webinars this fall and winter.

See a list of the upcoming and past webinars:

Topic Presenter(s)Date 
Ableism within health care professions: Review of experiences and impact of discrimination against health care providers with disabilitiesDr. Sally LindsayJanuary 31, 2023
Ableism and workplace discrimination among youth and young adults with disabilities in the workforce

Dr. Sally Lindsay

Shaelynn Hsu, Research Assistant, TRAIL Lab

July 6, 2022
It is time to address ableism in academia: A systematic review of the experiences and impact of ableism among faculty and staff

Dr. Sally Lindsay

Dr. Kristina Fuentes, Ph.D. Post-Doctoral Fellow, TRAIL Lab

June 8, 2022
Unravelling the Complexities of Workplace Disclosure among Persons with Non-visible Disabilities and Illnesses Vanessa Tomas, M.Sc., Ph.D. Candidate in the Rehabilitation Sciences Institute and Collaborative Program in Neuroscience at the University of TorontoMarch 2, 2022

Who’s disclosing? Examining the influence of mental disability identity management and social status in hiring.

Dr. Dan Samosh, Ph.DJune 10, 2021
Exploration of gender-sensitive care in vocational rehabilitation providers working with youth with disabilities: Co-development of a simulation Dr. Sally LindsayMarch 11, 2021
Building a disability disclosure simulation as an educational tool for employers.Dr. Sally Lindsay February 25, 2021
Co-development of an online self-determination toolkit for youth with disabilities Dr. Sally LindsayFebruary 4, 2021

Exploring the direct and indirect role of exercise on employment among individuals with disabilities: A Scoping Review

Dr. Azar Varahra, Ph.D Post-Doctoral Fellow, TRAIL LabNovember 10, 2020

An overview of one of CCRW's(Canadian Council on Rehabilitation and Work) largest programs, the Youth the Future program

Cailen Elliott, National Program Manager at CCRWOctober 6, 2020
Canadians with Sight Loss: A Population Perspective of Employment, Education and AccommodationsDr. Mahadeo Sukhai, Ph.D, CNIBJuly 30, 2020

Understanding & Evaluating Services to Youth with Developmental Disability.

Dr. Michael Wolf-Branigin, M.S.W., Ph.D., PStat®, Professor of Social Work at George Mason UniversityApril 22, 2020
Job characteristics and job retention of young workers with disabilities.Dr. Carrie Shandra, Associate Professor, Sociology, Stony Brook UniversityMarch 31, 2020

What are the training needs of managers that wish to hire employees with disabilities?

Valérie Martin, M. Sc, Ph. D.  Candidate, University of Montreal March 10, 2020
How do we measure inclusion at the workplace? A systematic review using the COSMIN methodology.Dr. Mana Rezai, DC MHSc, Post-Doctoral Fellow, TRAIL LabJanuary 29, 2020
Disability disclosure research. Dr. Brent Lyons, Assistant Professor; York Research Chair in Stigmatization and Social IdentityDecember 5, 2019
CNIB Employment data.Dr. Mahadeo Sukhai, Head of Research and Chief Accessibility Officer at the CNIBNovember 20, 2019
Gender sensitive review.Dr. Sally Lindsay, Dr. Mana Rezai, Dr. Kendall KolneOctober 3, 2019
Disclosing disability and asking for accommodations: A lived experience perspective.Emily Chan, Zak Priest, Polina KosarevaAugust 22, 2019
Addressing the employment goals of young adults with psychiatric disabilities.Dr. Elizabeth Thomas, Research Assistant Professor, Social and Behavioural Sciences, Temple University July 9, 2019
Action Potential: The future of work and disabilityJamie Burton, VP of Dolphin Digital Technologies Inc.June 12, 2019
Gender and employment among youth with disabilities. Dr. Sally Lindsay, Elaine CagliostroMay 22, 2019
Inclusion, disability disclosure and accommodations: Employers' perspectives.Dr. Sally Lindsay, Elaine CagliostroApril 25, 2019
Workplace disability disclosure and accommodations for youth with disabilities.Dr. Sally Lindsay, Elaine CagliostroApril 16, 2019

If you are interested in participating or co-hosting a webinar with us, please contact us

Get involved!

Are you a researcher interested in collaborating with your peers? Join REINVENT, our Research Alliance for Inclusive Youth Employment.

Want to join the TRAIL Lab as a student? Click here to find out about current opportunities.

Thank you to our funders


Social Science and Humanities Research Council of Canada log

Canadian Institutes of Health Research

Matched funding provided by the Kimel Family Opportunities Fund through the Holland Bloorview Kids Rehabilitation Hospital Foundation.

Thank you to our partners

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  2. Bruyere S, Ericson W, Van Looys J. Comparative study of workplace policy and practices contributing to disability non-discrimination. Rehabil Psychol. 2004;49:28–38.
  3. Munir F, Leka S, Griffiths A. Dealing with self-management of chronic illness at work: predictors for self-disclosure. Soc Sci Med. 2005;60:1397–1407.
  4. Brown K, Hamner D, Foley S, et al. Doing disability: disability formations in the search for work. Sociol Inquiry. 2009;79:3–24.
  5. Brohan E, Henderson C, Wheat K, et al. Systematic review of beliefs, behaviours and influencing factors associated with disclosure of a mental health problem in the workplace. BMC Psychiatry. 2012;12:1–14.
  6. Dong S, Oire S, MacDonald-Wilson K, et al. A comparison of perceptions of factors in the job accommodation process among employees with disabilities, employers and service providers. Rehabil Counsel Bull. 2012;56:182–189.
  7. Sanford J, Milchus K. Evidence-based practice in workplace accommodations. Work. 2003;27:329–332.
  8. Davis L. Disabilities in the workplace: recruitment, accommodation, and retention. AAOHN J. 2005;53:306–312.
  9. Bruyere SM, Erickson WA, VanLooy S. Comparative study of workplace policy and practices contributing to disability nondiscrimination. Rehabil Psychol. 2004;49:28.
  10. Leeuwen MT, Blyth FM, March LM, et al. Chronic pain and reduced work effectiveness: the hidden cost to Australian employers. Eur J Pain. 2006;10:161.
  11. Moon N, Baker P. Assessing stakeholder perceptions of workplace accommodation barriers: results from a policy research instrument. J Disabil Policy Stud. 2012;23:94–109.

Participate in Research

Interested in participating in our research? See below for all HAPPY studies we are currently recruiting for: 

Interested in the HAPPY Toolkit?

Request access

To access the toolkit, please complete this form. The TRAIL Lab will review your request. You will receive an email with login information once your request has been approved.